GB/T 3810.32006 (GB/T 3810.32016 Newer Version) PDF English
GB/T 3810.32006 (GB/T3810.32006, GBT 3810.32006, GBT3810.32006)
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Test method of ceramic tiles  Part 3: Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density
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Test methods of ceramic tiles  Part 3: Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density
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GB/T 3810.31999  English  279 
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Test methods of ceramic tiles Part 3: Determination of water absorption, Apparent porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density
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Newer version: GB/T 3810.32016 Standards related to (historical): GB/T 3810.32016
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GB/T 3810.32006: PDF in English (GBT 3810.32006) GB/T 3810.32006
ICS 91.100.25
Q 31
National Standard / Industry Standard
of the People’s Republic of China
Replacing GB/T 3810.31999
Test methods of ceramic tiles 
Part 3. Determination of water absorption,
apparent porosity, apparent relative density and
bulk density
(ISO 104543.1995, Ceramic tiles 
Part 3. Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative
density and bulk density, MOD)
ISSUED ON. DECEMBER 08, 2006
IMPLEMENTED ON. JUNE 1, 2007
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine;
Standardization Administration Committee.
GB
Table of Contents
1 Scope ... 6
2 Principle ... 6
3 Instruments ... 6
4 Samples ... 7
5 Steps ... 8
6 Results expression ... 9
7 Test reports ... 11
Foreword
GB/T 3810 "Test methods of ceramic tiles" is divided into 16 parts.
 Part 1. Sampling and basis for acceptance;
 Part 2. Determination of dimensions and surface quality;
 Part 3. Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent
relative density and bulk density;
 Part 4. Determination of modulus of rupture and breaking strength;
 Part 5. Determination of impact resistance by measurement of coefficient
of restitution;
 Part 6. Determination of resistance to deep abrasion for unglazed tiles;
 Part 7. Determination of resistance to surface abrasion for glazed tiles;
 Part 8. Determination of linear thermal expansion;
 Part 9. Determination of resistance to thermal shock;
 Part 10. Determination of moisture expansion;
 Part 11. Determination of crazing resistance for glazed tiles;
 Part 12. Determination of frost resistance;
 Part 13. Determination of chemical resistance;
 Part 14. Determination of resistance to stains;
 Part 15. Determination of lead and cadmium given off by glazed tiles;
 Part 16. Determination of small color differences.
This Part is Part 3 of GB/T 3810.
This Part modifies and adopts ISO 105453.1995 "Ceramic tiles  Part 3.
Determination of water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density
and bulk density" (English edition). This standard was published in 1995.
Technical Corrigendum ISO 105453.1995/Cor.1.1997(E) was published in
1997. In the Technical Corrigendum, "(100 ± 1) kPa" in 3.10 was replaced by
"(10 ± 1) kPa"; "(100 ± 1) kPa" in 5.1.2 was replaced by "(10 ± 1) kPa". This
Technical Corrigendum was included in this Part. And it is marked with vertical
double lines to indicate in the margins of the involved provisions.
This Part was redrafted according to ISO 105453.1995. For better adaptation
to China's national conditions, this Part has modified ISO 105453.1995 when
adopting. Main differences between this Part and ISO 105453.1995 are as
follows.
 ADD the sample requirements to largesized tiles of which the length is
longer than 400 mm.
 For ease of use, the following editorial changes of this Part were made.
a) "This part of ISO 10545" was revised to "This part of GB/T 3810";
b) DELETE the foreword of international standard.
This Part replaces GB/T 3810.31999 "Determination methods of ceramic tiles
 Part 3. Water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density and
bulk density."
Compared with GB/T 3810.31999, main changes of this Part are as follows.
 REVISE "HANG the dry ceramic tiles in the water after absorbing enough
water. It is used in the calculation of the relationship among parameters
of dry mass, mass after saturating, and suspended mass" in 2 [Translator.
Chapter 2] to "PLACE the dry tiles in the water to absorb the water till
saturation. USE the tile’s dry mass, the mass after absorbing the water till
saturation, and the mass in the water TO calculate relevant characteristic
parameters";
 REVISE "... vacuum box and the vacuum system. And it can reach a
vacuum degree of 100kPa ± 1kPa ..." in 3.10 [Translator. Section 3.10] to
"... the vacuum systems of which the vacuum containers and
vacuumpumping can reach 10kPa ± 1kPa and maintain for 30 min";
 REVISE "When the side length of tiles is longer than 200 mm,
calculate ..." in 4.4 to "When the side length of tiles is longer than 200
mm and less than 400 mm, calculate ... When the side length of tiles is
longer than 400 mm, then at the middle of at least 3 whole tiles, CUT 5
pieces of samples of which the minimum side length is 100 mm;
 REVISE "100kPa ± 1kPa" in 5.1.2 to "10kPa ± 1kPa";
 REVISE "The average value of each test performance’s results" in 7 d) to
"The average value of each performance test’s results."
This Part was proposed by China Building Material Federation.
This Part shall be administrated by National Standardization Technical
Committee of Building Sanitary Ceramics.
Organization responsible for the drafting of this Part. Xianyang Ceramics
Research and Design Institute.
Organizations participated in the drafting of this Part. Foshan Shiwan Eagle
Ceramics Co., Ltd., Guangdong Monalisa Ceramics (Group) Co., Ltd., Foshan
Xinghui Ceramics Co., Ltd., and Hangzhou Nobel Group Co., Ltd.
Main drafters of this Part. Liu Youhong, Bai Zhanying, Zhong Yingzhou, Zhang
Qikang, Chen Hongzai, and Li Ying.
The previous versions replaced by this Part are.
 GB 25791981, GB 25791989;
 GB/T 3810.31999.
Test methods of ceramic tiles 
Part 3. Determination of water absorption, apparent
porosity, apparent relative density and bulk density
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 3810 specifies the determination methods of ceramic tiles’
water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density, and bulk density.
For open pores of the samples to inhale saturated water, there are 2 methods.
Soaking under boiling and vacuum conditions. Boiling method is that water
enters into the easilyimmersed open pores; and vacuum method is that water
fills the open pores.
Boiling method applies to classification of ceramic tiles and product
descriptions. Vacuum method applies to determination of apparent porosity,
apparent relative density, and water absorption except classification.
2 Principle
PLACE the dry tiles in the water to absorb water till saturation. USE the tile’s
dry mass, mass after absorbing water till saturation, and mass in water TO
calculate the relevant characteristic parameters.
3 Instruments
3.1 Drying ovens. Operating temperature is 110 °C ± 5 °C. It can also use
microwave, infrared ray or other drying systems that can get the same test
results.
3.2 Heating devices. The heating devices that are made of inert materials and
are used to boil.
3.3 Heat sources.
3.4 Balance. Weighing precision of the balance is 0.01% of the mass of the
fraction (%) of dry tiles. The calculation formula is as follows.
In the formula.
m1  mass of dry tiles, g;
m2  mass of wet tiles, g;
Eb represents the water absorption measured by m2b. Ev represents the
water absorption measured by m2v. Eb represents the water injecting into
those onlyeasilyaccessible pores. While Ev represents the water injecting
into all pores with maximal possibility.
6.2 Apparent porosity rate
6.2.1 USE the following formula to calculate apparent volume V (cm3)
6.2.2 USE the following formula to calculate the volume of open pores part V0
and the volume of the impermeable part V1 (cm3)
6.2.3 Apparent porosity rate P is represented by the percentage of the
relationship between volume of open pores and the apparent volume. The
calculation formula is as follows.
6.3 Apparent relative density
CALCULATE the apparent relative density T of the sample’s impermeable part.
The calculation formula is as follows.
6.4 Bulk density
Bulk density B (g/cm3) of sample is represented by the quotient obtained by
dividing the dry weight of the sample BY the apparent volume (including the
pores). The calculation formula is as follows.
7 Test reports
The test reports shall include the following contents.
a) In accordance with this part of GB/T 3810;
b) Descriptions of the samples;
c) Test results of each performance test of every tile;
d) Average values of performance test results of each item.
...... Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF  translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.
